22. April 2021

Representation Not Sufficient for Promoting Gender Diversity, Study Says Press release: Representation Not Sufficient for Promoting Gender Diversity, Study Says

Representation of women and minorities in groups, which choose organisation’s leaders on its own
is not sufficient to support gender diversity unless the organisational culture changes, a recently
published study showed.

Representation Not Sufficient for Promoting Gender Diversity, Study Says
Representation Not Sufficient for Promoting Gender Diversity, Study Says © Bernhard Ganglmair
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A team of scientists around Nicola Persico at the Northwestern University and Bernhard Ganglmair at
the University of Mannheim and the Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) analysed
the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), an open standards organization, which develops and promotes
voluntary Internet standards.

Top operational leaders in the IETF are appointed by a ten-member selection committee called
NomCom. Its members are randomly selected each year from a pool of volunteers.

“In the case of the IETF, more women were appointed only after cultural norms supporting diversity
and inclusion became more salient“, the scientists stated.

“Our results are highly relevant for the current discussion about a quota for women in political parties
or the boardrooms of companies. They show how important it is to pay attention to cultural
norms,” Ganglmair said. “Higher participation of women must go hand in hand with changes in the
entire organization.”

During the first part of the study, in the years 2005 to 2011, increases in female representation of the
committee resulted in the appointment of even fewer women. It needed a cultural regime change in
the years 2012 to 2020 so that female appointments increased.

Culture is referred to holistic, informal norms, both societal and organisation-specific, i.e., public
speeches, codes of conduct, and other activities that are technically unconnected with the appointment
process, but whose effect is to change members’ attitudes towards certain gender stereotypes.

“There is strong evidence that IETF culture changed around 2012 because of both active efforts from
inside the organisation and a broader societal shift in attitudes regarding gender diversity and inclusion,“
according to the authors. “This evidence indicates that representation is not enough to select
gender diversity,“ they added.

The cultural change regarding diversity can be observed in the share of emails containing the word
“diversity“ of all IETF emails, which shot up to 1 percent in 2013 and stabilised around 0.2 percent
thereafter, more than twice the pre-2010 average.

At the same time, societal interest in gender composition jumped around 2011-12 as reflected in
Google search data. “The causal effect of adding a woman [to the selection committee] after the shift
in informal norms is an 11.9 percentage point increase in female appointments, compared to a 6.2
percentage point decrease beforehand,“ the study revealed.

Given that the IETF’s decisions have enormous technological and financial implications, many companies
seek to place employees in leadership roles. IETF was, inter alia, significantly involved in developing
the HTTP protocol and the e-mail protocol POP3.

“Without IETF’s contribution to the development of these protocols, the Internet as we know it today
would not exist. Within this context, underrepresentation of women in IETF leadership is highly societally
relevant,” the authors concluded.

Prof. Dr. Bernhard Ganglmair is member of the Collaborative Research Center Transregio 224 EPoS. The presented
discussion paper is a publication without peer review of the Collaborative Research Center Transregio
224 EPoS.

Discussion Paper No. 284
Project B 02

Representation Is Not Sufficient For Selecting Gender Diversity

Justus Baron
Bernhard Ganglmair
Nicola Persico
Timothy Simcoe
Emanuele Tarantino

For further information and interview requests, please contact the author of the study:

Prof. Dr. Bernhard Ganglmair
Department of Economics
University of Mannheim
Phone: +49 621 1235-304
Email: ganglmair@uni-mannheim.de



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