You are here: Home Data

Data

EPoS has funded the following data aquisitions and/or data collections:

 

Promoting equality of opportunity and changing students’ beliefs about returns to effort and education

Type of data: Collection of belief specific information on more than 6000 students in 128 schools in Chile

Source: The data collection was conducted in form of a paper & pencil survey by the polling institution FOCUS (ESTU-DIOS Y CONSULTORÍAS FOCUS) in Chile.

Project: A01

Contact persons: Fabian Kosse; Thomas Dohmen

Research project: The CRC identifies the question “How to promote equality of opportunity?” as a major societal challenge. Previous research has shown that especially students from disadvantaged families hold biased belief about returns to education in general and effort in particular. They systematically underestimate the returns to effort and education and therefore underinvest in learning effort. This creates a vicious circle: students from disadvantaged families hold negative beliefs about returns to effort and schooling, according to their beliefs they invest too little, this leads to bad education outcomes and manifests intergeneration persistence. Therefore, the aim of this project is to explore if the introduction of an affirmative action (AA) policy holds the potential to adjust these biased beliefs and thereby promote equality of opportunity.

 

Parental Beliefs about Returns to Parenting Styles and Neighborhoods

Type of data: Survey of a representative sample of over 2,000 parents in the United States on their beliefs about returns to different parenting styles and neighborhoods.

Source: The data collection was conducted in form of an online survey in cooperation with the market research company Research Now SSI (now called Dynata)

Project: A02

Contact person: Lukas Kießling

Research project: Parents are important for the development of children. Yet, not much is known about factors determining how parents decide to raise their children. This project focuses on parental beliefs to shed light on parental decision-making processes. More specifically, it studies parental beliefs about the returns to two factors affecting the development and long-term outcomes of children: (i) parenting styles defined by the extent of warmth and control parents employ in raising their children, and (ii) neighborhood quality. Previous theoretical research suggests that the economic environment (i.e., neighborhoods) creates incentives to engage in different forms parenting. As parents decide where to live and how to raise their children, it is therefore important to understand how parents perceive environments and parenting to interact.

 

Data Collection of Initiative on Family Survey Respondents in the LISS Panel

Contact person: Pia Pinger, A02 and Katja Kaufmann, C01

The aim of the data collection was to collect background information on personality and preferences for all household members (as opposed to the financial respondents, who are the focus of C01) and to provide insights into parental investments into their children's homan capital, household bargaining, and time allocation within the household.

The data collection was as a collaborative effort led by Pia Pinger (A02) and Katja Kaufmann (C01); further contributors included Michèle Tertilt (A03), Thomas Dohmen and Armin Falk (A01), and Hans-Martin von Gaudecker (C01).

 

A setback set right? The Intermediating Role of the Education System in the Event of Family Distress

Type of data: Administrative records on date of death, cause of death, date of unemployment, and cause of unemployment (due to bankruptcy)

Source: Statistics Netherlands

Project: A02

Contact person: Renske Stans

Research project: A substantial share of children experience some type of family distress before their 18th birthday, such as parental unemployment, divorce or the death of a family member. These setbacks often are associated with a negative influence on children's educational performance, and consequently may even hamper labor market outcomes. This raises the concern that events of family distress create unequal childhood circumstances that may impede equality of opportunity. As often it will not be feasible to prevent these events from occurring, an important channel to ensure that children are still given equal chances is through the design of the education system. The way the educational setup interacts with negative life events is vital for the long-term consequences of such events. This paper investigates the importance of the education system in how the effects of family distress materializes.

 

Understanding the Sources of Earnings Losses: A Machine Learning Approach

Type of Data: Microdata, Social security records from Austria

Source: Austrian Social Security Administration

Project: A03

Contact person: Andreas Gulyas

We document the sources behind earnings losses of job displacement adapting the generalized random forest due to Athey et al. (2019). Using administrative data from Austria over three decades, we show that displaced workers face large and persistent earnings losses. We identify substantial heterogeneity in losses across workers. The interquartile range of the estimated losses is equal to 52,000 euros, which is more than 80% of average losses. The most vulnerable are high-income, high-tenure workers employed at well-paying firms in the manufacturing sector. Our methodology allows us to consider many competing theories of earnings losses prominently discussed in the literature. The two most important factors are the displacement firm's wage premia and the availability of well-paying jobs in the local labor market, implying losses in employer specific wage components are key for the understanding of earnings losses.

 

Earnings Risk and Family Labor Supply

Contact person: Anne Hannusch, A03

This project aims to explore how earnings risk affect the joint labor supply decision problem of spouses in the context of the German reunification. It uses administrative data from the Microcensus to document that West Germany experienced an increase in the permanent and transitory component of earnings risk during the decade following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Simultaneously, the labor force participation of married women with children increased by 30% during the same time period, while the labor force participation of married men remained constant. To what extent do married women increase their labor supply as an informal insurance mechanism against increasing earnings risk faced by the family? Does the presence of earnings risk affect the human capital accumulation of married women? Is the response of households to public policy reforms, such as increases in the availability of childcare or cash transfers, affected by the presence of earnings risk?

 

Disparities in Access to Cancer Treatment and Health Outcomes: Evidence from Ontario

Type of data: patient-level administrative data in Ontario

Source: ICES Ontario

Project: B03

Contact person: Laura Grigolon

The broad purpose of the project is to investigate disparities in access to cancer treatment and health outcomes. In particular, we would like to focus on the effect of uncertainty in the choice of therapy for cancer. Economist are concerned with the behavioral implications of uncertainty in experience good markets. Uncertainty matters when you purchase a car or buy cereals, if utility-bearing characteristics are revealed to you through consumption or use. This aspect may be particularly important in the choice of treatments because oncologists operate in an uncertain environment in terms of effectiveness and side effects.

 


Leveling the Playing Field Between Airbnb and Hotels: Tax Evasion, Enforcement, and Welfare

Type of data: property level prices and occupancy of Airbnb listings and hotels

Source: AirDNA and STR

Project: B03

Contact person: Laura Grigolon

With an inventory of 2.3 million rooms, Airbnb now has more capacity than the three largest hotel chains combined. While it started as a platform for hosts to make some extra cash on the side by occasionally renting out spare rooms, multiple-unit and full-time operators are now a growing percentage of total Airbnb hosts and the company's revenue. As the nature of the business model changes, incumbents are demanding that online rivals obey the same rules that traditional suppliers are subject to. Among other issues, the hotel industry has accused the platform of facilitating the evasion of local sales and lodging taxes by hosts because Airbnb does not reveal the identity or address of hosts. While hosts have a legal obligation to collect and remit applicable taxes, the costs to local jurisdictions of locating and penalizing evaders are exorbitant. Since 2014, however, Airbnb has voluntarily entered over 275 agreements with cities, counties, and states across the U.S. to enforce those taxes. Once an agreement is reached, Airbnb becomes the tax remitter by collecting taxes on applicable transaction from renters (consumers) at the point of sale, which increases tax compliance to 100% in those jurisdictions. The project aims to exploit the variation in the introduction of these agreements to better understand the nature of competition between offline and online competitors. First, we will compare changes in prices and bookings between Airbnb and hotel suppliers whren the competitive landscape is leveled by the enforcement agreements. Second, we will measure the extent of tax evasion before the enforcement of the agreement and, therefore, the competitive advantage that Airbnb suppliers enjoy over hotels in the absence of enforcement agreements. Finally, by combining our results, we will determine how equal taxation impacts consumer welfare and the underlining market structure in the short-term accommodation industry.

 

Gravity in Oligopoly

Type of data: access to French firm-level trade and balance-sheet data via CASD

Source: Data are provided by CASD, source: INSEE, Customs

Project: B03 and B06

Contact person: Harald Fadinger, Volker Nocke and Nicolas Schutz

We use these data in a joint project between projects B3 (Volker Nocke, Nicolas Schutz) and B6 (Harald Fadinger). The research team is completed with Holger Breinlich (U. Surrey). In this project we structurally estimate export behavior in the presence of oligopolistic firms. The data allows us to estimate product-level demand elasticities and to compute firm-product-specific qualities and markups. This allows us to gauge firms’ market power in individual markets. We then use the previous information to estimate gravity models in the presence of oligopostic competition. In particular, we study how trade flows react to trade barriers, such as tariffs, once we take into account that market power (and thus markups) systematically co-vary with them. Obtaining consistent estimates of trade elasticities is highly relevant for correctly assessing welfare gains from trade liberalization and free-trade agreements. Thus, our results will be very relevant for policy makers. Moreover, we can track firms’ markups over time, which enables us to measure changes in market power in European product markets.

 

Empirical Evaluation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS)

Type of data: Administrative data on manufacturing firms in France and Germany

Source: CASD Secure Data Hub (France), Research Data Centre of the Statistical Offices of the Federal States (Germany)

Project: B07

Contact persons: Dana Kassem, Ulrich Wagner

Research project: The CRC identifies the question “How to regulate markets?” as a major societal challenge. Global climate change presents an urgent case for regulation, as it is caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions that are released as a negative externality from fossil fuel consumption. Since 2005, the cornerstone of such regulation in Europe is an emissions trading scheme for CO2 and other greenhouse gases, the EU ETS. The aim of this project is to provide empirical evidence on how this policy has fared in terms of emissions reductions, possible adverse impacts on economic competitiveness, and incidence. To this end, the project will conduct econometric analysis based on high-quality, restricted-access microdata of manufacturing firms in France and Germany.

  

Exchange rate expectations and expected interest rate spreads

Type of data: Access to data on exchange rate and interest rate expectations for dozens of developed and developing economies

Source: Data are provided by FX4cast.

Project: C02

Contact person: Husnu Dalgic

Research project: The first project is on providing evidence on how market participants form exchange rate expectations. I am going to analyze exchange rate forecast patterns in countries with different monetary policies. Literature documents that the real exchange rate (defined as the nominal exchange rate divided by price level) mean reverts in 1-2 years, which means that deviations in real exchange rate are eventually corrected. The correction can either come from the nominal exchange rate or the price level. In economies with inflation targeting monetary regimes, price level is stable and it is documented that the correction comes from the nominal exchange rate. Then, real exchange rate movements have predictive power on the nominal exchange rate. With a comprehensive data on expectations, we can test whether real exchange movements change expectations on the path of the nominal exchange rate. The second project involves using interest rate data combined with the exchange rate expectations to construct expected interest rate spread in emerging markets. The spread that we construct is the return to carry trade, borrowing in dollars and investing in emerging market currencies. Then, we can analyze the determinants of expected returns to carry trade. Positive expected returns are likely to be associated with higher capital flows to emerging markets. Both projects aim at guiding policymakers about the role of policy instruments as well as macro variables on the formation of market expectations of exchange rates, capital flows and interest rates.

 

Transmission Channels of Monetary Policy 

Type of data: High frequency data of financial prices (federal fund futures, Eurodollar futures, Eonia swaps, S&P 500, EuroStoxx 50, DAX 30, EUR-USD and DM-USD exchange rates); Corporate bond data (Mergent FISD)

Source: Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Thomson Reuters; Wharton Research Data Services

Project: C02

Contact person: Matthias Meier, Timo Reinelt

The CRC project (joint with Timo Reinelt, University of Mannheim) investigates the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. This project proposes a new hypothesis: Tighter monetary policy makes it harder for firms to finance profitable investment projects, which worsens the allocation of physical capital across firms and thereby lowers aggregate productivity. Preliminary evidence suggests this channel is quantitatively important. Fully establishing this channel in the data is relevant for the design and implementation of monetary policy. Thanks to additional CRC funds, we have purchased a rich dataset of secondary market bond transactions, which allows us to investigate the transmission channel in great detail. 

 

Document Actions