You are here: Home Data

Data

In 2018, EPoS has funded the following data aquisitions and/or data collections:

 

Promoting equality of opportunity and changing students’ beliefs about returns to effort and education

Contact person: Fabian Kosse, former member of A01

The CRC identifies the question “How to promote equality of opportunity?” as a major societal challenge. Previous research has shown that especially students from disadvantaged families hold biased belief about returns to education in general and effort in particular. They systematically underestimate the returns to effort and education and therefore underinvest in learning effort. This creates a vicious circle: students from disadvantaged families hold negative beliefs about returns to effort and schooling, according to their beliefs they invest too little, this leads to bad education outcomes and manifests intergeneration persistence. Therefore, the aim of this project is to explore if the introduction of an affirmative action (AA) policy holds the potential to adjust these biased beliefs and thereby promote equality of opportunity.

Funds of the CRC TR 224 have been used to collect belief specific information of more than 6000 students in 128 schools in Chile. The data collection was conducted in form of a paper & pencil survey by the polling institution FOCUS (ESTU-DIOS Y CONSULTORÍAS FOCUS) in Chile.


Understanding Parental Decision-making: Beliefs about Returns to Parenting Styles and Neighborhoods

Contact person: Lukas Kießling, A02

This project focuses on early-life determinants of inequalities by analyzing the interplay of parental decision-making and neighborhoods on subsequent child outcomes. In order to do this, I collect novel data from a large sample of parents on their beliefs over the effectiveness different parenting styles and link their responses to detailed neighborhood characteristics. This study will therefore contribute to our understanding of the intergenerational transmission of inequality.

 

Data Collection of Initiative on Family Survey Respondents in the LISS Panel

Contact person: Pia Pinger, A02 and Katja Kaufmann, C01

The aim of the data collection was to collect background information on personality and preferences for all household members (as opposed to the financial respondents, who are the focus of C01) and to provide insights into parental investments into their children's homan capital, household bargaining, and time allocation within the household.

The data collection was as a collaborative effort led by Pia Pinger (A02) and Katja Kaufmann (C01); further contributors included Michèle Tertilt (A03), Thomas Dohmen and Armin Falk (A01), and Hans-Martin von Gaudecker (C01).

 

A setback set right? The Intermediating Role of the Education System in the Event of Family Distress

Contact person: Renske Stans, A02

Education plays a vital role to establish equality of opportunity, as it is one of the key determinants for human capital development. In order to know whether children are given equal chances, it is therefore important to understand how the education system interacts with unequal circumstances. Previous studies in economics mainly focus on the relation between the educational set-up and differences in children's socioeconomic backgrounds. Instead, this project analyses whether and how the design of the education system interacts with children experiencing events of family distress. More specifically, I focus on situations of (grand)parental bereavement at the time of critical transition periods within the education system.

By employing Dutch administrative records, I am able to detect children who experience the death of a (grand)parent either during the 6-months before or after a critical transition period. By comparing these two groups of children, I can identify 1) the direct effect of these setbacks on academic performance during the critical period, and 2) the mediating effect of the educational transition in the case of setbacks on longer-term outcomes. In addition, I use survey data to investigate potential underlying channels, such as changes in parental investments.

 

Austrian Employment Data

Contact person: Andreas Gulyas, A03

The CRC funded several conference visits where I presented my research about how firms change the composition of its workforce as they expand and contract. This has important implications on policies such as short time work and dismissal costs, as it helps to understand which workers might be affected and what the welfare consequences of these policies might be.

Furthermore the CRC funded the access to social security data which will be applied to understand income differences across different workers, the sources behind the gender wage gap, and how to best predict unemployment durations.

 

Earnings Risk and Family Labor Supply

Contact person: Anne Hannusch, A03

This project aims to explore how earnings risk affect the joint labor supply decision problem of spouses in the context of the German reunification. It uses administrative data from the Microcensus to document that West Germany experienced an increase in the permanent and transitory component of earnings risk during the decade following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Simultaneously, the labor force participation of married women with children increased by 30% during the same time period, while the labor force participation of married men remained constant. To what extent do married women increase their labor supply as an informal insurance mechanism against increasing earnings risk faced by the family? Does the presence of earnings risk affect the human capital accumulation of married women? Is the response of households to public policy reforms, such as increases in the availability of childcare or cash transfers, affected by the presence of earnings risk?

 

Disparities in Access to Cancer Treatment and Health Outcomes: Evidence from Ontario

Contact person: Laura Grigolon, B03

Laura Lasio (Assistant Professor at McGill) and I have been approved to access patient-level data from a Canadian Institute (see attachment). The broad purpose of the project is to investigate disparities in access to cancer treatment and health outcomes. In particular, we would like to focus on the effect of uncertainty in the choice of therapy for cancer. Economist are concerned with the behavioral implications of uncertainty in experience good markets. Uncertainty matters when you purchase a car or buy cereals, if utility-bearing characteristics are revealed to you through consumption or use. This aspect may be particularly important in the choice of treatments because oncologists operate in an uncertain environment in terms of effectiveness and side effects.

This project will explore the extent of disparities in cancer care across hospitals and its impact on consumers’ (patients) welfare. In particular, it will identify the drivers of such heterogeneity and, specifically, how it is affected by the rules governing funding of systemic treatment (chemotherapy, biotherapy and immunotherapy). In 2014, a reform in Ontario defined a set of evidence-informed treatment options determined and validated by expert groups, excluding funding for obsolete ones. We will use the reform to identify (i) whether and how the rationalization of the regimens affected clinical practice; (ii) whether physicians in different cancer facilities reacted differently to the reform, distinguishing between early and late adopters of the most updated regimens. Finally, our work will extend the existing literature by developing and estimating a structural model that will allow us to uncover the mechanisms behind heterogeneity in adoption, distinguishing between heterogeneity of preferences towards different side effects (risk aversion) and heterogeneity in knowledge or information acquisition (learning). This work is in the vein of Ackerberg (IER 2003), Crawford and Shum (Econometrica, 2005) and Gong (JMP, 2018).This project fits into the project B03, in particular with regard to the theme of consumer protection. The setting we study is one with uncertainty and limited information on the match value between patients and treatments and doctors’ choices may be characterized by rational inattention. In this context, the introduction of funding rules tied to scientific evidence can be interpreted as a way to protect consumers in such an uncertain environment, both for the supply side (the oncologists) and the demand side (the consumers/patients). Our approach will allow us to inform policy makers on the likely impact of actual and potential changes to this type of policies that could be introduced in different contexts. 

 

Data Collection on Airbnb Research Project

Contact person: Laura Grigolon, B03

Our research focuses on Airbnb. With an inventory of 2.3 million rooms, Airbnb now has more capacity than the three largest hotel chains combined. While it started as a platform for hosts to make some extra cash on the side by occasionally renting out spare rooms, multiple-unit and full-time operators are now a growing percentage of total Airbnb hosts and the company's revenue. As the nature of the business model changes, incumbents are demanding that online rivals obey the same rules that traditional suppliers are subject to. Among other issues, the hotel industry has accused the platform of facilitating the evasion of local sales and lodging taxes by hosts because Airbnb does not reveal the identity or address of hosts. While hosts have a legal obligation to collect and remit applicable taxes, the costs to local jurisdictions of locating and penalizing evaders are exorbitant. Since 2014, however, Airbnb has voluntarily entered over 275 agreements with cities, counties, and states across the U.S. to enforce those taxes. Once an agreement is reached, Airbnb becomes the tax remitter by collecting taxes on applicable transaction from renters (consumers) at the point of sale, which increases tax compliance to 100% in those jurisdictions.

Our project aims to exploit the variation in the introduction of these agreements to better understand the nature of competition between offline and online competitors. First, we will compare changes in prices and bookings between Airbnb and hotel suppliers whren the competitive landscape is leveled by the enforcement agreements. Second, we will measure the extent of tax evasion before the enforcement of the agreement and, therefore, the competitive advantage that Airbnb suppliers enjoy over hotels in the absence of enforcement agreements. Finally, by combining our results, we will determine how equal taxation impacts consumer welfare and the underlining market structure in the short-term accomodation industry. In terms of methods, we plan to use both reduced-form techniques and structural methods of demand estimation in the spirit of Farronato and Fradkin (2018). In related work, we used the transaction-level data on Airbnb listings, as well as variation in enforcement agreements across time, location, and tax rate, to determine how enforcement agreements impact Airbnb host behavior. We estimate that the enforcement of a 10% tax reduces the price paid to hosts by 2.4% and increases the total price renters pay by 7.6%. Using these numbers and some assumptions on the demand and supply curves, we estimate that taxes are paid on only 24 percent of Airbnb transactions (at maximum) prior to enforcement.

The study fits into the project B03, in particular with regard to the theme of consumer protection. The rapid growth of peer-to-peer giants such as Uber, Amazon Marketplace, eBay and Airbnb is often attributed their business model, which allows small suppliers to compete with traditional providers of services. Part of the success of these online platforms also comes from the parallel legal universe they inhabit. Uber and Airbnb can skirt hte licensing, health and safety requirements to which taxi and hotel businesses are subject. For years, American buyers on Amazon and eBay avoided the sales taxes that were routinely charged in brick-and-mortar stores. Concerns about fair competition have grown with the size of these platforms. Our work will inform policy makers on the extent of the advantage enjoyed by Airbnb hosts over the years by quantifying the extent of evasion.

 

Data access to French firm-level microdata

Contact person: Harald Fadinger, Volker Nocke and Nicolas Schutz, B03 and B06

Using CRC funds, we have been able to finance access to French firm-level export and balance-sheet data via secure data access (CASD). This has allowed us to obtain information on prices charged and quantities exported by detailed product category for French manufacturing firms in each of their export markets. We use these data in a joint project between projects B3 (Volker Nocke, Nicolas Schutz) and B6 (Harald Fadinger). The research team is completed with Holger Breinlich (U. Surrey). In this project we structurally estimate export behavior in the presence of oligopolistic firms. The data allows us to estimate product-level demand elasticities and to compute firm-product-specific qualities and markups. This allows us to gauge firms’ market power in individual markets. We then use the previous information to estimate gravity models. In particular, we study how trade flows react to trade barriers, such as tariffs, once we take into account that market power (and thus markups) systematically co-vary with them. Obtaining consistent estimates of trade elasticities is highly relevant for correctly assessing welfare gains from trade liberalization and free-trade agreements. Thus, our results will be very relevant for policy makers. Moreover, we can track firms’ markups over time, which enables us to measure changes in market power in European product markets.

 

French firm-level datasets IMPCOMI and MAROTIN

Contact person: Harald Fadinger, B06

Using CRC funds, we have been able to finance access to French firm-level export and balance-sheet data via secure data access (CASD). This has allowed us to obtain information on prices charged and quantities exported by detailed product category for French manufacturing firms in each of their export markets. We use these data in a joint project between projects B3  (Volker Nocke, Nicolas Schutz) and B6 (Harald Fadinger). The research team is completed with Holger Breinlich (U. Surrey). In this project we structurally estimate export behavior in the presence of oligopolistic firms. The data allows us to estimate product-level demand elasticities and to compute firm-product-specific qualities and markups. This allows us to gauge firms’ market power in individual markets. We then use the previous information to estimate gravity models. In particular, we study how trade flows react to trade barriers, such as tariffs, once we take into account that market power (and thus markups) systematically co-vary with them. Obtaining consistent estimates of trade elasticities is highly relevant for correctly assessing welfare gains from trade liberalization and free-trade agreements. Thus, our results will be very relevant for policy makers. Moreover, we can track firms’ markups over time, which enables us to measure changes in market power in European product markets.

 

Data Set of Exchange Rate and Interest Rate Expectations

Contact person: Husnu Dalgic, C02

The data is provided by FX4cast and includes exchange rate and interest rate expectations for dozens of developed and developing economies. The first project is on providing evidence on how market participants form exchange rate expectations. I am going to analyze exchange rate forecast patterns in countries with different monetary policies. Literature documents that the real exchange rate (defined as the nominal exchange rate divided by price level) mean reverts in 1-2 years, which means that deviations in real exchange rate are eventually corrected. The correction can either come from the nominal exchange rate or the price level. In economies with inflation targeting monetary regimes, price level is stable and it is documented that the correction comes from the nominal exchange rate. Then, real exchange rate movements have predictive power on the nominal exchange rate. With a comprehensive data on expectations, we can test whether real exchange movements change expectations on the path of the nominal exchange rate.

The second project involves using interest rate data combined with the exchange rate expectations to construct expected interest rate spread in emerging markets. The spread that we construct is the return to carry trade, borrowing in dollars and investing in emerging market currencies. Then, we can analyze the determinants of expected returns to carry trade. Positive expected returns are likely to be associated with higher capital flows to emerging markets.
Both projects aim at guiding policymakers about the role of policy instruments as well as macro variables on the formation of market expectations of exchange rates, capital flows and interest rates.

 

Monetary Policy and Misallocation

Contact person: Matthias Meier, C02

The CRC project (joint with Timo Reinelt, University of Mannheim) investigates the transmission mechanism of monetary policy. This project proposes a new hypothesis: Tighter monetary policy makes it harder for firms to finance profitable investment projects, which worsens the allocation of physical capital across firms and thereby lowers aggregate productivity. Preliminary evidence suggests this channel is quantitatively important. Fully establishing this channel in the data is relevant for the design and implementation of monetary policy. Thanks to additional CRC funds, we have purchased a rich dataset of secondary market bond transactions, which allows us to investigate the transmission channel in great detail. 

 

Document Actions